One thing people seem to misunderstand is battery capacity. They think it as a shrinking tank, then it should be looked at as a pipe with constantly widening extra hole (energy leaking through it ends up as heat), In the end the "hole" becomes so big, that you cant get the power required. In real world terms the battery capacity should be looked as an estimate (actually energy that the battery can store doesn't really change during its lifetime, what changes is ESR, in laymen's terms - its ability to give that energy at specific power levels). On even ground/unloaded car the drop will be negligible, but on hilly terrain/loaded car the battery could go "flat" in an instant. Most of us prob. had a phone where on standby it could last days, but as soon as you try to make a call it goes flat. Old EV going for £500 is quite possible, it will only need a new £10000 battery to leave a driveway. As what the future holds for the batteries - it cant be equated to semiconductor/tech industry. Batteries advance is due to discoveries of new chemistries (as opposite to refining existing technologies). There hasn't been a new chemistry on the market in the last ~5 years (for example 18650 cell haven't really advanced above 3.4Ah), the latest advance in Tesla battery is due to them moving to bigger cell (better packing efficiency), but that was one time deal. Maybe tomorrow somebody discovers a new technology that will increase a battery energy density tenfold, or maybe it wont ever happen. Its pretty much unpredictable. Wireless charging is very inefficient (50% currently), electrifying roads wont work anywhere where it rains or snows (snow + salt + electricity = fun). Battery swapping - it might work on small scale (one manufacturer, tightly regulated market), but not for mass consumer product (multiple manufacturers, independent dealers). What happens then you swap your new battery for one that is at the end of its lifetime (or was diy refurbished) and noone wants to swap it? what if that happened in another country? and so on.